The cryosphere system of the mountainous regions also include ice-rich permafrost as well as buired remnant ice in moraines. Changes in the permafrost thermal regime can have significant impacts on local hydrology, land surface energy and moisture balances, carbon exchange between the land and the atmosphere, and ecosystems, as well as on engineering infrastructure. With rising temperatures in the high mountains, it is expected that meltwater from buried ice in the frozen ground will increase the river runnoff.
Photo: Fedshenko glacier talus slope, Pamir, Tajikistan (Alfred Diebold ©)
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